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Other balanced states may occur including when: an allele is favored at one developmental stage and is selected against at another (antagonistic pleiotropy); an allele is favored in one sex and selected against in another (sexual antagonism); an allele is favored when it is rare and selected against when it is common (negative frequency dependent selection).: Also called sex-chromatin body, which represents the inactivated X chromosome in the nucleus of somatic mammalian cells.Normally only seen in female cells and not in male cells.(genetic): Association refers to a concurrence greater than predicted by chance between a specific allele and another trait (for example, a disease) that may or may not have a genetic basis.Evaluation of association requires the study of unrelated individuals.
Besides aphids, Daphnia (water flea), rotifers, Hydra have alternation of generations in response to environmental conditions.: Formation of diverse m RNAs through differential splicing of the same RNA precursor.
Association studies may prove useful in identifying a genetic factor in a disease.
Except when linkage disequilibrium exists, association is not due to genetic linkage and should not be confused with it.: Lethal mutations in different genes on the same pair of chromosomes that remain in repulsion because of close linkage or crossover suppression.
This may result in proteins with different composition of amino acids or it may involve just the length of 3' UTR.
One reason for alternative/differential splicing is base modification during RNA editing causing a change in splice sites.: The most recently evolved and the largest group of plants whose reproductive organs are in their flowers (flowering plants).